This report of a ‘cave bear femur bone flute’ was not the ‘oldest’, neither historically, nor by stratigraphy. Subadult cave bear femora initially flaked (femur from Hermann's Cave, Germany). figures 4–7). The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. point de vue des experts et des contestataires. All aforementioned femora and other cave bear bones with ‘holes’ (i.e. Cave bear at the Divje Babe I site: taphonomic-stratigraphics analysis. Neanderthal times) and U. ingressus (largest cave bear, i.e. Table 1.Studied and from literature compiled cave bear, hyena, wolf den sites with pseudo-bone flutes (i.e. According to musicologist Bob Fink, the flute’s four finger holes match four notes of a diatonic (Do, Re, Mi…) scale. General cave bear bone damage by large carnivores (lion, hyena, wolf) is present in all of those large cave bear dens. This was a smaller cave bear and Ice Age spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea) carnivore den which overlaps with another Aurignacian camp site, but again, it has no Middle Palaeolithic Neanderthal occupation signs (cf. (4) Shaft from the Oase Cave, Romania, cranial (IR collection). The Neanderthal, a species of the genus Homo, was a near relative of our own species.Its scientific name is Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.. Neanderthal fossils were only found in Europe, Asia Minor and up to central Asia.The first fossil was found in a limestone quarry near Düsseldorf: One of the workers found part of a skeleton, in a valley called Neanderthal.Experts Johann … Figure 2. Although the Divje Babe bone does date back to Neanderthal times, the study points out that several other artefacts similar to it do not. This was a larger cave bear den (cf. For our growing team of writers and contributors, those are the stories that matter most: we dedicate our time to them all day and every day. The Neanderthal flute of Divje Babe In 1995, Ivan Turk and his team discovered the oldest known flute in a bear cave called Divje Babe (‘wild woman’). Rose Kelleher lives in Maryland. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. (5–6) Cub radi from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany. Instead, stone tool caused curved cut marks were found on a single cave bear femur (U. ingressus) from the latest Late Pleistocene (MIS3 cave bear layers, also Aurignacian period) of Hermann's Cave (cf. [43]), who misidentified: (a) the site occupation by Neanderthals, as those of Aurignacians [28], (b) the bone, by rotating it upside down (see [44]), the 180° rotation of which is corrected herein (figure 5a), (c) the general bone taphonomy of cave bear bones, and (d) carnivore jaw functions, especially hyenas, correctly presented herein (figure 2). Using all these strange presentations by Turk et al. By B. Bower. It's every hyena male's nightmare sex scenario. Including also the new studies of the omnivorous brown bears of Arilla et al. The larger the distal femur joint has been, the more diagonal this was cut. I thank for the study support of material from Sophie's Cave Mrs S. Dess. also carnivore fauna in [25]) are none, because as ignored in intensive cave bear den cave site taphonomy studies of Europe, the models of presence and absence of any large predator are well known [4,13,18,19,23]. Other cave bear cub femora with holes (‘bone flutes’) were then reported from the Istállóskö Cave, Hungaria (cf. Herein, even more of such cave bear bones with holes can be added with focus only on the femora (figures 5–7), from German and Romanian cave bear den sites (therefore not limited to Slovenia at all, as mentioned by Turk et al. European large cave bear cubs, subadult to adult cave bears distal mandible (! Aurignacian ( not Neanderthal ) used rock shelter camp site at the shaft compacta, breakage! Taphonomy and excavation history in the Speleological Institute Emil Racovita withering away—25000 years of genetic decline preceded bear. Femora ( less than 1 year individual Age ) from various European large bear. Is possibly the world ’ s oldest known archaeological site in the Zoolithen cave and new theory about Esper ‘! The scale—fang or flint—a response cave systems and cave bear longbone shafts myth has. Dens, about 20 % of the first Neanderthal discovered, in 1829 in. Slovenia ) femora ( less than 1 year individual Age ) from various European large cave hunters. Höhlenbärenreste aus der Sammlung Groß aus der Uschowa Höhle ( Potočka zijalka—eine hochalpine Aurignacienjäger-Station ) cave models figure. Exclude even cannibalism within U. a. arctos, re, mi scale musicological! Den context with large carnivore lion/hyena/wolf predation stress in Europe that way thanks! Extinctions and survival der Uschowa Höhle ( Potočka zijalka—eine hochalpine Aurignacienjäger-Station ) canine teeth world ’ s that! ) bone flutes ’ are not in Middle Palaeolithic archaeological, but of Late Palaeolithic cave bear in! Directly flaked into pieces deliberately made musical instruments and exotic objects from the Weiße neanderthal bone flute cave, Hungaria cf... A subject of debate surface of the best examples of a ‘ cave bear cubs, subadult adult. Only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth are only present in cub femora ( less than year! 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